The environments identified as the most intact or richest in biodiversity, as far as vegetation is concerned, are also the most interesting and rich in fauna, even if agricultural or sylvan-pastoral activities are present in these areas. The low-impact exploitation of natural habitats, which has been practised in Ampezzo since historic times, and their undivided vastness are the main factors that favour the presence of animals. Even more than hunting, which has been regulated and well managed for over a century, and tourist flows on balance, which have less impact than it is commonly believed.
The list of the animal species present on the Ampezzo Dolomites includes almost the complete range of the Alpine fauna. However, it is not only the presence of unique species - species for which the Ampezzo Dolomites have responsibility to the European Community, but it is the ease of observing and approaching the wild fauna which is particularly surprising. There are few places in the Dolomites, where herds of tens of chamois can be spotted frequently and at distances of less than one hundred meters, like the mountains of the Ampezzo. The fauna biodiversity consists of 160 species of vertebrates; among them are 31 species of mammals, 113 species of birds and 16 species of amphibians, reptiles, and fish.
Big predators, whose habitat exceeds the size of the Park of the Ampezzo Dolomites, often leave trace of their transit. But so far, these animals have not shown they can settle permanently in these valleys. The species which are sometimes spotted and whose traces are often monitored are: brown bear (Ursus arctos), lynx (Lynx lynx), golden jackal (Canis aureus), bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) and griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus).